Essay On Total Quality


This assignment gives the full research of Total Quality Management for Ritz Carlton with company profile, HR deals with TQM, ISO Certificates, and Auditing, and how it deals with the process. This helps with the process of the company to develop to their standards.

1. Company Profile

The Ritz Carlton Hotel Company is an administration organization which works Hotels and resorts in twenty three nations worldwide and seventy lands in all the real urban communities. The brand is a subsidiary of Marriot International Hotel with the focal set in Chevy Chase, Maryland. Made in the early 1990’s; the association uses more than 32,000 people and restrictive, the association today runs under the heading of William Johnson and Horst Schulze. With 100 years of incredible past record, Ritz Carlton has deduced how to support and rather open up its prestigious and its brand picture of extravagance and solace.

1.1 Company Products

The Ritz Carlton outperforms at giving rich Hotels and resorts with the included characteristics of spas, bars, suites, visitor rooms, gold offices, meeting lobbies for official gatherings et cetera. Any festivals of birthdays, commemorations, weddings or showers, the Ritz Carlton takes pride in making a significant event.

1.3 Operational Challenges

Refined customers are possibly the most key tests to Ritz Carlton’s operations.. Posturing to be exceptionally challenging, this classification of clients are fulfilled after heaps of aches in any case, Ritz Carlton can’t overlook them since they frequently fit in with the choice class. Different tests incorporate look after an interest estimate and value alterations as per the gauges. No administrator might want to see vacant rooms yet disillusioned clients are additionally not so much sought. Striking an agreement between the investment and supply is a main problem.

1.4 Market Challenges

The Hotel business as a rule today is confronting tests as a drowsy economy which has been irritated by the money related crunch the world is confronting at present. Separated from this, the climbing competition by the quick improvement of rich 5-star or more motels and resorts all around all as far and wide as possible and the unyieldingly asking for and refined customers are acting certified tests to this industry2. Concepts and

Applications of TQM.

Supreme quality organization is an establishment for managing people, endeavours and strategies to insurance the best quality service/product which sureties complete customer fulfilment. It is a part of administration which exclusively concentrates on quality as its prime triumph variable characterize: “Downright Quality Management (TQM) is the situated of administration methodologies and frameworks that make enchanted clients through empowered delegates, inciting higher wage and more level upkeep.”

Concept and Application of TQM:

The focus of a company on accuracy closer to Six Sigma is essential for the application of TQM. Crosby believes that TQM is achieved through focus on the following principles:

i. Prevention is better than cure: Avoiding mistakes from happening in the first place is essential for TQM application.

ii. Quality is product meeting the description: Since the customer is the king, the product description should match the requirements completely.

iii. Standards should be maintained: The product should be benchmarked and standards should be maintained throughout.

iv. Zero Defects: Crucially important and correlates with the fact that if standards are maintained, there will not be any defects in the product.

v. Continuous Improvement: There cannot be TQM achieved unless there is a constant improvement in the quality of the product or service.

vi. Employee Involvement: It would be unwise for any organization to expect TQM without the important input of its employees.

A mixture of all the six steps above effect in the execution of accurate sum quality administration polishes. Without an offset in the above components, it is not conceivable for there to be accurate TQM in any association, be it an item assembling organization or an administration firm. TQM masters, for example, Crosby and Lawler have composed over and over on the vitality of the last two components in the chain of improvement. Most associations actualize everything except one of the components of TQM, and accordingly neglect to sufficiently give quality in administration. Contrived projects for each of these components with a specific end goal to guarantee that the client gets the right service the first run through, the administration the first run through, the administration quality does not go down the following time and that the representatives help towards more terrific improvement to enhance the by and large nature of the administration.

For compelling TQM all out duty and solid initiative are to a great degree fundamental so as to distinguish and dispense with the squandered exertions and vigor used in an association on a customary groundwork. The idea of TQM started and created in the assembling segment yet through the years the idea has been redefined and adjusts to be pertinent to an administration industry. In an administration industry since for the most part there is no substantial item and the client is straightforwardly included in the administration being offered, in this way applying TQM is discriminating as well as represent an issue to place quantifiable terms on the characteristics that help the nature of the administration.
‘The Ritz Carlton hotel company implemented the Malcolm Baldrige quality program for effective quality management. And it became the only recipient in the service industry to receive 4the Malcolm Baldrige award twice’. This criterion has seven categories which include leadership, strategic planning, customer focus, measurement, analysis and knowledge management, workforce focus, process management and results.

3. TQM and Ritz Carlton:

Ritz Carlton has a particularly prepared group of value administration executives who use in the ballpark of one fourth of their time on examining and determining quality related matters. Week by week gatherings are held to examine item and administration quality, visitor fulfilment, benefits and focused status in the industry, rivalry and business development and improvement. Ritz Carlton accepts that the mystery to powerful quality administration is to contract proficient staff that comprehends the visitors’ needs and indulges them promptly.

Quality Planning:

In the accommodation business, quality is of great essentialness however tragically so far the center has just been on preparing bleeding edge staff to guarantee visitor fulfilment. The essentialness of estimation and procedure change has been completely overlooked. Structures and polls requesting “Rate Us” rounded out by visitors and aberrant measures of deciding client fulfilment have been utilized as a method of procedure enhancements for a considerable length of time. Anyhow this technique has ended up being insufficient since steps might be taken for development after a disappointed client brings up what the lodging needs. Along these lines, the inferences and suggestions are gained past the point where it is possible to avoid a client from being influenced by it.

The point when a client stays at a lodging, his recognition of value is characterized by dependability, affirmation and compassion. Ritz Carlton has set this apparent quality as its target and to accomplish it underlines on unoriginality, uprightness and opportuneness. Each of the three variables joined lead to client fulfilment.

Quality Control:

When these administration measures have been dead set the following step is to choose the estimation strategies to screen how well these gauges are, no doubt attained. The significant challenges confronted by the neighbourliness business in actualizing TQM are deciding estimations and methodology change systems that give quantifiable information. However the administration business is understanding this situation and in the following few years will be thinking of successful method of measuring quality execution. Truth be told some estimation methods have recently been received by lodgings including Ritz Carlton. Progress Hotelovation is, no doubt used to the most extreme banquet by utilizing computerized building and security frameworks to automated reservation framework; Ritz Carlton is thinking of additional easy to understand systems to improve client fulfilment. The workers are prepared to note down the preferences, aversions and inclination of visitors and this information is entered in a database which guarantees a quality administration to rehashed visitors according to their inclination.

Quality Improvement:

The lodging business can attain quality change without the utilizing the advanced factual procedures regularly utilized by the assembling business. For the Hotel business the Baldridge honours essentially obliges the organization to gather and dissect data with respect to Customer fulfilment, item and administration quality, cycle (time take to distinguish and fulfil a client need), money related information and worker records and contrast this data and industry benchmarks and relating information of contenders.

3.1 Benefits of TQM at Ritz Carlton

The Ritz Carlton Baldridge quality principles set the establishment stone for the lodging business and show how the whole business can set the quality criteria to create a fruitful and viable quality confirmation plan. Yet for that a quality society requirements to be created and the top pioneers can take the activity to manufacture that.

Attempting to enhance the nature of administration in the friendliness business not just has a positive effect on the lodging area and the clients yet the representatives too. Their working quality expansions prompting occupation duty and fulfillment, worker strengthening and contribution enhances correspondence and empowers cooperation. Administration initiative, diminished expenses and client steadfastness add further bolstering the good fortune of an association which is attempting to persistently enhance its administration and items to better serve its clients.

Ceaseless change necessities to be the canter on the grounds that we are as of now living in a society where client requirements are evolving quickly. To stay mindful of the normally changing surroundings the hotel business necessities to be caution and versatile enough to oblige the asking for customers of today. Approach’s to TQM may move from affiliation to companionship however the Malcolm Baldridge Awards serve as a regulating light for setting up a quality change program. The point of the whole quality administration program at Ritz Carlton is not just to achieve client fulfilment and to live up to their desires additionally to furnish them with a huge remain as such far past their desires. Ritz Carlton does work Total Quality Management and it is simply because of this reliable TQM that the organization has held its clients throughout the years and keeps on fulfilling them and furnish them with a rich sit tight. “Since the beg Hoteling of the first Ritz Carlton Hotel in 1927, it has figured out how to support its brand picture and the included characteristic of hoteling the Malcolm Baldrige recompense has fortified its position in the Hotel business”.
Studying the organizational social order and conforming it to suit the separated social orders of the guests staying in is an exchange essential part that needs to be worn down.. An aggregation of top directors and official staff from distinctive zones and branches of the organization necessity to sit together and discriminatingly dissect and look at the association to evaluate the fit between the TQM standards, organizational society and client necessities. To actualize nonstop change and to adjust operational exercises Ritz Carlton created a pyramid idea where the organization’s mission is at the top, succeeding levels are accompanied by the 10-year mission, 5-year mission, key procedure change strategies and systems to hone client and business center. The pyramid base is situated by the organization’s logic and qualities to guarantee that all deliberations for development are adjusted to the organization standards and principles.

3.2 Five Areas for development

Systems and approaches actualized and data conveyed is one part of TQM which Ritz Carlton necessities to deal with particularly in regards to issues of how quality control arrangements are made and how are they joined to the long and fleeting arrangements of the association. The credibility of outside and inward data gathered and the viability of its correspondence to concerned gatherings is one variable which has been completely disregarded by Ritz Carlton and requirements to be acknowledged to effectively accomplish TQM in its items and administrations advertising. The five territories for advancement at Ritz Carlton are as accompanies:

1) Benchmarking:

Ritz Carlton works in an industry where benchmarking is a subjective activity. Being an extravagance Hotel, it can’t really select whatever possible lodging for its benchmark. Nonetheless, it may as well characterize one and strive hard to reach its models.

2) Plan for Benchmarking:

i. Asking the customers for their desired service benchmarks.

ii. Adopting international hotel standards as defined by hospitality management institutions.

Execution of the benchmarking arrangement will empower Ritz Carlton to turn into the benchmark of different lodgings in the area and separate itself from its rivals.

3) Teamwork: There are a nearly infinite amount of administrations gave in a lodging to a solitary client by numerous fragments of the Hotel. Cooperation and joint effort around them is a key issue that needs to be executed.

4) Plan for Teamwork:

i. training drills as per the most interfaced administrations.

ii. Installation of correspondence arrangement empowering all segments of the Hotel to be upgraded in regards to clients’ needs and requests.
Executing a coordinated effort game plan will upgrade the customer organization experience and produce positive reviews about Ritz Carlton in the industry.

5) Zero Error Rate:

Oversights are sins in the Hotel business. The managerial center ought to be to guarantee that there are zero slips so no negative client perspectives are created.

Plan for Zero Defects

i. Implementing client “data” plan where clients impart their prerequisites unmistakably and are supported on the record.
ii. Employees ought to be trained to manage every client particularly.
ii. Asking the client for illumination if necessary is superior to committing an error.

The concentrate on gathering the clients’ prerequisites and moving from gauges assuming that it is requested by the client ought to be a piece of the script at Ritz Carlton.

6) Demand Estimation leading to minimized wastage:

In this time of reusing and keep tabs on minimized wastage, Ritz Carlton might as well embrace a procedure that might minimize its assets wastage and work for a worldwide no-wastage cause.

7) Plan for Demand Estimation leading to minimized wastage:

The Hotel’s methodology towards utilization of assets ought to be reflected to its clients. Lodgings like Ramadah Plaza have embraced such methodologies and have completed well. Ritz Carlton can utilize the same methods, assuming that it feels it doesn’t have to adjust them.
The Hotel can anticipate that its corporate picture will ascent and gleam and in this way depend on the “green” clients to return again due to their concentrate on minimized wastage.

8) Quality Training:

Preparing and consistent re-summon of traps and tips is vital if Ritz Carlton is to secure aggregate quality administration drills proficiently. The Hotel can anticipate building a progressing preparing system where existing and new workers might be prepared particularly consistent with Ritz Carlton guidelines so as to “do it right, the first run through” in light of the fact that in the extravagance Hotel industry, that is what matters.

9) ISO of Ritz Carlton:

In 1987 Ritz Carlton adopted ISO 9000 series of five international quality standards, and they revised them in 1994 and again 2000. The standards have been adopted in the over 500,000 organisation worldwide have received ISO 9000 certificates. The standards apply to all type of business. After rapid acceptance of ISO 9000 and increase of environment standards. They formed an advisory group on the environment in 1991, which eventually led to the adoption of the ISO 14000 family of international environmental management standards. Now there are more than 300,000 Organisation has ISO 14000. Together the ISO 9000 and 14000 certificate Ritz Carlton has 160 countries holding both types. Right now the ISO 22,000 sustenance wellbeing administration framework had been built. In 2008 the Ritz Carlton turned into the first Hotel in the bind to be affirmed consistent with this standard too. Today an alternate five lodgings in the chain are likewise confirmed consistent with ISO 22,000. For 15 years,
HACCP: The many semi-crude materials, parts, individuals and procedures and a ceaseless necessity for preparing and testing. In2004 they took the test of getting the Ritz Carlton’s Hotel confirmed consistent with the HACCP (Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Points) sustenance security standard, which is the universally recognised working technique that helps organizations in the nourishment and refreshment industry distinguish their sustenance dangers, anticipate sustenance wellbeing perils and location lawful agreeability.

Auditing: Ritz Carlton hotels made The Ritz-Carlton, has fortified its notoriety for practicality by turning into the initial five-star lodging in Europe to be ensured by the EU Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS). From water protection and vigour sparing to staff movement groups and even colonies, it has taken more than a year to guarantee the extravagance lodging is in accordance with the requesting benchmarks of EMAS. A Ritz-Carlton Environmental Action Conservation Team (REACT) has been set up at the lodging with the point of guaranteeing norms are upheld and new practical chances are always recognized. A natural officer has likewise been named to lead crisp administration forms.
HR in TQM:

Ritz-Carlton totally coordinates Human Resource assets and operations, with the goal that an outside eyewitness could be hard pressed to deduce who were the human-assets individuals and who were the operations individuals. Human-assets and operations work force cooperate to select, situate, prepare, and guarantee workers. They likewise guarantee that the representatives remain profoundly included in running the business, since each level of the association is accused of the obligation of setting objectives and goals.

Evaluation. “Our quality execution models are likewise built by representatives through their work groups in all aspects of the lodging,” Menes said. “This leads me to our execution examination framework, in which we consider our kin capable just for the things they can control. Evaluation is dependent upon the things that we told workers were imperative throughout their introduction -the highest levels. Once our workers get guaranteed, execution evaluations are just a recertification, with the goal that preparation can turn into a persistent procedure. We likewise ask our kin to help the methodology by recognizing issues and attempting to fathom them.”

4. Conclusion

Ritz Carlton requirements to understand that combative targets and mottos have a tendency to baffle workers instead of persuade them consequently influencing their execution. Accordingly, threatening targets and objectives necessity to be disposed of since an imperative idea of accomplishing TQM is enabling the workforce to take choices and to place confide in them that they might give their best to the association.

It is to a great degree essential for powerful TQM to be drilled that Ritz Carlton evacuates the as of now existing boundaries between divisions. Exploration, outline, promoting and the human asset office all have a normal objective that is of giving quality administration and achieving client fulfillment and for this they have to cooperate as opposed to concentrate on distinctive objectives. The TQM model executed at Ritz Carlton underscores on representative training and preparing, worker support and client center and the association has so far been fruitful in executing these techniques in its every day operation to accomplish TQM. At the same time it neglects to understand the vitality of teaching administration in workers, since supervision of administration is urgent to guarantee that the administration quality is not wavering sometime or another in time.

6. References


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Jersey, Prentice- Hall.
Schiller, M. R., & Miller-Kovach, K. (1994). Total quality management for hospital nutrition
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Department. Society for Technical Communication.
IMPROVEMENT PROCESS. Retrieved June 14, 2009, from PHCC Education Foundation:


Babar S. & D.J., Aspelin (2004). TQM? It’s as easy as ABC. The TQM Magazine, p32-38.
Cassidy, Michael P. (2006). Streamlining TQM. The TQM Magazine, p24-28.
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Six Sigma, p52-59.
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Magazine, p52-59.
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A.V.Feigenbaum.Journal of Management History, p60-67.
Jabnoun, Naceur (2002). Control processes for total quality management and quality processes.
Work Study Journal, p182-190.
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The TQM Magazine, p51-60.
Mehrotra, Dheeraj (2003). Applying Total Quality Management. ISix Sigma, p143-159.
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Magazine, p292-300.
Page, Richard & Curry, Adrienne (2000). TQM ‘ A holistic view. The TQM Magazine, p11-18.
Smith, AK (1993). Total Quality Management in the Public sector. Quality Progress, p45-48.12
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Walsh, Stephen P. (2000). Successful TQM Training. The TQM Magazine, p292-300.


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Total Quality Management

Total Quality Management(TQM) is an organisational process that actively
involves every function and every employee in satisfying customers needs, both
internal and external. TQM works by continuously improving all aspect of work
through structured control, improvement and planning activities that are carried
out in concern with guiding ideology that focuses on Quality and Customer
Satisfaction as the top priorities.
There has been many arguments that TQM succeeds only by incorporating a
concern about quality for the customers throughout the organisation. The truth
of this statement and those facts that disagree with this statement will be look
into and discuss in more detail to achieve the success of TQM.
TQM recognises that the Customer is at the center of every activity. The
customer may be external or internal. The key is to determine the gap between
what the customer needs and what the system delivers. Once the gap is
recognised, it would be systematically reduced and results in never-ending
improvement in customer satisfaction at every level.
TQM depends on and creates a culture in an organisation which involves
everybody in quality improvement. Everyone in the company can affect quality but
must first realise this factor and have the techniques and tools which are
appropriate for improving quality. Thus TQM includes the marketing and
dissemination of quality and methods not only within the organisation and
customers but also to suppliers and other partners.
The general view to achieve success in TQM could be summarised as below:

Quality as strength
Quality in all processes
The importance of management
The involvement, commitment and responsibility of everybody
Continuous improvement
Zero defects
Focus on prevention rather than inspection
Meeting the needs of target customers

A prerequisite for successful quality improvement is first, to understand how
quality is perceived and valued by customers.

4 "Q'

Design Quality Technical Quality
Production Quality
Delivery Quality
Functional Quality
Relational Quality


Customer Perceived Quality
Customer Satisfaction

Figure 1: Gronroos - Gummesson Quality Model (1987)

Gronroos and Gummesson has combined their "Customer Perceived Quality'
model and the 4 "Q" model to stress the importance of customer. The intergrated
model focuses solely for the organisation to achieve customer satisfaction
through improving the quality for the customers.
Morup (1992) notes that "quality is the most important and effective factor
a company can use in the battle for customers." To be competitive, we must
satisfy the customers. In order to be more competitive, we must delight the
customers. Quality is here defined as the measure of customer delightment.
Kaizen provides the philosophy and driving force for designing the quality.
If quality is made the global driving force, then customers will obtain the best
value possible and use the product. The concern about quality will optimise the
value for customers.
The TQM perspective involves not only quality in relations with external
customers but also quality in the internal service chains and in relation to
suppliers and other partners.
This "Quality Chain" involves everyone in the process and applied
throughout the organisation.
Customer orientation and quality are not just a matter of ensuring that the
contents of the product or services satisfies the customer needs. The manner in
which the service is delivered and the customers' relations with the company
must also meet the customer's expectation.


Customer Satisfaction

Quality Improvement

As the above graph indicates the sales increases directly with an increase
in customer satisfaction. Customers are satisfied with improvement in quality.
The more quality improves, the faster sales will increase because customer
satisfaction carries its own acceleration. When the quality reputation grows,
marketing can emphasize increasing customer satisfaction as a major element in
advertising and the other promotions.
As Deming wrote in his book "Out of the Crisis," it will not suffice to
have customers that are merely satisfied. An unhappy customer will switch.
Unfortunately a satisfied customer may also switch, on the theory that he could
not lose much and might gain. Profit in business comes from repeat customers,
customers that can boast about your product and service, and that bring friends
with them. He further stated that we should stay ahead of the customers. This
could be achieved through constant quality improvement and innovations.

Why Do Companies Lose Customers:

Death of Customer 1%
Customer Moving Residence 3%
Lower Price Elsewhere 5%
Unsatisfactory Handling of Complaints 14%
Suppliers' Lack of Interest 68%

As shown in the above graph above TQM's success includes the incorporation
on quality of the after sales service and follow up. The quality needed in
maintaining a customer will be less as compare to gaining a new customer. TQM
success would therefore not only focus on gaining new customers but maintaining
the current customers, through improvement in quality for customers.
Even though the main concern about TQM is highly focused on the customers,
the focus on internal process cannot be left out. TQM's success may not lie only
on the quality for the customer but the quality of the organisation as a whole.
The core concept is discussed below:

Right First Time / Zero Defects

TQM stress of the importance of zero defects and achieving the right target
the first and everytime. Variances in product are not acceptable and methods
such as the Statistical Process Control (SPC) is use to achieve the objective.
Zero defects is the result of an emphasis on prevention and diligent use of
measurement, process control and the data driven elimination of waste and error.
As Crosby said, "The purpose of quality management is to set up a system and a
management discipline that prevents defects from happening in the company's
performance cycle."

Cost of Quality

This is the cost incurred in achieving a quality product or services. These may
be prevention cost, appraisal cost, internal failure cost, external failure cost,
the cost of exceeding customer's requirement and the cost of lost opportunities.

Competitive Benchmarking

Comparing with competitors is another reflex of TQM. This is a continuous
management process that helps firms access their competition and themselves and
to use that knowledge in designing a practical plan to achieve market
superiority. When done correctly, benchmarking produces the hard facts needed to
plan and execute effective business strategies.

Involvement of Everyone

In TQM everyone is involved in the process of making the company a successful
business. Everyone in the company is responsible for producing quality goods and
services and reducing the cost of quality.

Synergy in Team Work

In Japan, there is no status difference as they believe in synergy. Therefore
they consider themselves as partners depending on each other for effective
management and success. Ownership and the Elements of Self-Management

Total quality programmes are founded on the principal that people want to own
the problems, the process, the solution and ultimately the success associated
with the quality improvement. Psychologically, the ownership advocated by TQM
ties in the development in organisational design away from traditional models of
imposing management control over employees' behaviour.

Recognition and Rewards

TQM system considers the rewards and recognition to be critical to a company's
programme, particularly when greater involvement of staff is required. Positive
reinforcement through recognition and rewards is essential to maintain
achievement and continuous improvement through participative problem-solving

The Quality Delivery Process

TQM is not just the awareness of quality for the customers. It demands the
implementation of a new system.

Finally, the main objective of TQM may put the customer at the center of every
activity and consider the process as customer driven, but all other factors
which do not involve the customers have to be taken into consideration for the
successful implementation of TQM.


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