Essay No. 01
Problems of Rising Prices
The problem of rising prices is the greatest economics problem in a country today. It is cutting the throats of millions today because millions of people find it hard to manage one square meal a day. All days work does not promise then sufficient to eat and drink.
Prices have doubled in the last five years and many things on daily use are now beyond the reach of common man. More and more things are going beyond the reach of common people with each passing day.
The reason is not for to seek. There is a craze for getting rich as quickly as possible. The industrialists, the manufactures and the middlemen seek the highest profits and have no soft corner for the poor consumer and purchases. Big industrial concerns have become economic empire and dictate their own terms to the common people.
The government is also to be blamed to some extent. It is constantly increasing taxes there by pushing prices astronomically. It has been resulting to deficit financing and printing currency notes by the tons. It has increased prices and the common men are praying for his needs through the nose. The rich are becoming richer and the poor are becoming poorer. This gap seems to be increasing each year.
The real answer to inflation lies in greater production and productivity. Industrial production can be increased by removing some problems like raw – material shortages, undue licensing restrictions against efficient large scale producers, and unreasonable labour problems are solved.
Prices are bound to increase in a developing economy and there can be no absolute price stability, as such. But limits should be defined. A modest increase in prices in not unhealthy for a developing economy like India.
Essay No. 2
The Problem of Rising – Prices
Problem of Rising- prices is the burning problem at present. Prices of all things have been rising very rapidly. They have gone up twenty times. Everybody complains that prices are increasing day by day. India is a developing country. In a developing country. Prices are bound to go up. With developing economy the prices go up. But the trouble starts when the income of the people does not match with rising prices. India I facing this problem.
There is no actual shortage of nay thing in the country. But there is shortage of honesty only. The businessmen create artificial shortage of foodgrains. So the prices go up day by day.
Our population is increasing very rapidly. Now our population is more than 80 crores. Food grains have not increased in proportion of increase in population.
The deficit financing in the plans is also responsible for the roaring prices. Much money is spent on some plans which do not seem to be useful producers say that there is a rise in the prices of raw materials. So there is an increase in the manufacturing cost.,
Some people say that the taxation policy is defective and needs change to bring the prices down. The government is making investments in the industries which will show the benefits after a long time. There is no proper adjustment between supply and demand. Some government officials are corrupt. They are quite indifferent towards the seriousness of the problem.
Anti Social elements like hoarders and black marketers never miss an opportunity to cash the situation. Political parties regardless of ideologies, have one common ideology- shedding crocodile tears for the pool to collect their respective votes. They take interest in blaming each other and politicizing a problem affecting every common citizen. They are not increased in solution of a problem otherwise they must be one in tackling the problem of price – rise.
The rising prices should be checked at once. The government should take drastic steps against hoarding and back- marketing . production should be increased. Distribution of national wealth should be made fair and effective. The government must take over the trade of important food grains such as wheat, rice and sugar. The circulation of back money must be controlled at all costs. The check on growing population should be brought under control. Deficit budgets should be discouraged. Sense of patriotism must be created by our leaders who should be far above corruption. Public should co- operate with the government. Our slogan must be “Down with Prices.”
If suggested steps are taken the prices will surely go down. Our government should punish the defaulters, hoarders and black marketers. In absence of any charging the maximum price in place of reasonable price to gain maximum profit.
Essay No. 03
Price rise is one of the most ticklish current problems. Whenever we go to make some purchases in the market, we learn to our great disappointment that the prices of most of the commodities have risen and sometimes quite exorbitantly.
There are several reasons for this steep rise in prices. One reason is the shortfall in production. This happens particularly when the country or a part of it is witnessed by floods or famine. Strikes result in fall in industrial production.
Sometimes, one feels baffled when one learns that there has been a bumper crop and still there is scarcity of essential commodities in the market. This usually happens due a number of reasons. One reason is the defective distribution system. Sometimes, there is over-production of some agricultural product in one State but it does not reach other States for lack of wagons, boxes, etc. It is generally seen there is surplus production of wheat in States like Punjab and Haryana but this surplus produce is not swiftly transferred to other States. Similarly, the bumper product of apples in Himachal Pradesh does not reach other States.
Another reason for the scarcity of commodities in the market even during times of profusion is the tendency of wholesalers and capitalists to hoard the products and create a scarcity in the market.
There are several other reasons for price rise. Some of such reasons are back market, corruption, faulty taxation system, wastage, expenditure on luxuries, bloated bureaucracy drawing heavy salaries, excessive profit charged by manufacturers on their products, etc.
In order to check price rise, effective steps should be taken and at the same time excessive circulation of money should also be checked. It should be ensured that imports are decreased and at the same time exports are increased.
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India is faced today with one of the most critical economic situations. At no other time did Indians witness the horrible phenomenon of spiraling prices as they do today, prices are soaring like rackets and each day one finds a rise in prices of more or less all essential commodities. Inflationary pressures are doing plenty of mischief and the people of middle class families are finding it a Himalayan task to make both ends meet.
In a developing economy, prices usually display an upward trend. But if prices keep rising persistently, they cause great hardship to the people. They spare neither the rich nor the poor, neither the producers nor the consumer. They make a economic activities uncertain and unstable, causing great unrest in the minds of the people.
Prices are expressed in terms of money. When the rupee or any other currency buys much less than what it used to, and more is to be paid for practically every item, then the problem of rising prices comes into being. In economic terminology it is known as 'Inflation'. Where the balance between money supply on the one hand and goods and services on the other is disturbed, a critical problem arises. If money supply increases more than goods and services available prices will rise.
The fixed-income groups like salaried people, wage-earners and pensioners are the most helpless victims of inflation. As prices rise, their real income gets eroded. The additional dearness allowance which the government sanctions from time to time proves of no use to them, because their purchasing power actually goes down. Inflation induces businessmen to invest their money in nonproductive assets like gold and land whose real worth is not affected by rising-prices. High prices also adversely affect the exports of the country and distort the balance of foreign trade.
In a developing economy a certain rise in prices in inevitable for at least three major reasons. First, the programmes of economic development generate larger employment and money incomes and these increase the demand for basic consumer goods and services. The new incomes are not proportionately reflected in saving because a majority of the beneficiaries have to spend most of the additional money they get on satisfying unfulfilled needs. Secondly, the same programmes of economic development as generate the new money incomes push-up the demand for certain goods wanted also by the consumer, such as agricultural products, fuel, housing materials and the like. A third reason, of which the first two may be looked upon as special cases, is the large increase in currency in emulation and the operation of the law of supply and demand. Unless the production of basic consumer goods keeps pace with the increase in currency that is rendered inevitable by large scale, long term planning, prices are bound to rise even of the production of consumer goods is maintained at the old level.
Numerous factors can be cited to explain price rise in India First, our economic planning has suffered from serious drawback, right from the beginning. During the various Five-Year Plans, while the public expenditure persistently increased, the production targets were never realized. Secondly, this forced the Government to resort to deficit financing. The resulting imbalance inevitably led to inflation. The Third, major factor responsible for price rise is that due to great emphasis laid on heavy industries in our Five-Year-Plans, agriculture and consumer goods industries, which produce the items required by the people, have received insufficient attention. Consequently, agricultural production has not kept pace with consumption. Fourthly, in an underdeveloped economy like ours, the first increases in income always tend to be expended on food articles. In other words, the level of consumption tends to increase with increases in income.
The cumulative effect is a growing pressure on prices. Fifthly, there is a tremendous increase in population. About ten million new mouths are to be fed every year. Sixthly, there are psychological factors that push up the prices. Continually rising prices give rise to rising expectations, with the result that farmers and stockiest tend to hoard more and more stocks, anticipating further increase in prices. Seventhly, there has been very heavy taxation on the public—both direct and indirect. In an underdeveloped country like ours, this adds to the inflationary pressure for number of reasons. Heavy taxes on industries are ultimately passed on to the consumers, thus increasing their cost of living. Heavy taxation also discourages greater production. Defective tax-structure has encouraged tax-evasion and accumulation of black money and smuggling. Eighthly, majority of Indians have no community consciousness. There is no organized consumer resistance to price rise. The Ninth factor is the faulty distribution and marketing system. Last, but not the least, was the international factor, increase of oil prices in the international market.
In order to solve this difficult problem, some drastic steps must be taken. First, the entire strategy of planning should be changed. There should be equal attention on heavy industries and agriculture and consumer goods. Secondly, the mounting governmental administrative expenditure should be drastically curtailed as it is mostly wasteful and non-development expenditure. Thirdly, tax burdens on the public should be reduced. And finally, no hoarder, profiteer or black marketer should be left with impunity. Unless they are crushed with a heavy hand, the common man is bound to suffer.
Our government is quite conscious of the magnitude and implications of the problem. It has already initiated a number of steps to check inflationary tendencies. What we now need is a strict enforcement of these steps. Apart from accelerating growth and imposing curbs on money supply, we need an effective distribution system. We also need the support of the social workers and other public minded citizens to keep a watch on the unethical practices of shopkeepers.. But nothing can mitigate the situation unless the growth of our population is checked.